There are 3 general categories of music for Old Time Dances and the tempo for each respective group usually is standard within a limited range. Over 2 bars a minute can be a dramatic change in dance tempo however.
1 Waltz time is 3-4 and also includes the Polka Mazurka and Varsoviana. The rhythm is easily recognised by its 1,2,3 or oom pah pah count. There is one down beat to the bar.
Simple waltzes like the Veleta and King's Waltz are set to 16 bar routines and therefore danced to 16 bar tunes. Most sequence dances like the Parma and Swing Waltzes need 32 bar tunes to match their sequence. One exception is La Rinka which is arranged to a 24 bar sequence, so it in particular needs special 24 bar tunes.
Generally the music for a Pride of Erin, Parma Waltz or Swing Waltz is also suitable and therefore interchangeable for all the sequence dance waltzes. In other words, Dorothea, Waltz Oxford, Tracy Leigh, Margo, Marietta, Rosita etc. Irish or Irish/American songs are usually preferred for the Pride of Erin.
The original version of St Bernard Waltz has a marked 'knock knock' played between the 3rd and 4th bar to match the footstamp.
The Tempo for these waltzes is best at 52 bars a minute although some prefer and many bands play a slightly up-tempo of 54 bars a minute. Anything beyond this is too fast.
There are a few exceptions to the above. The old Circular Waltz and the original Veleta and similar English Sequence dances using the balletic feet positions need a slower tempo of 48 to 50 bars a minute. The original Hesitation Waltz of 1913 is slower again at 44 bars a minute.
The Modern Waltz or Jazz Waltz and any sequence dance derivatives such as the Alpha are at a much slower tempo of 28 to 32 bars a minute and require a marked downbeat at the beginning of each bar. The old Viennese Waltz of Strauss days is very fast in contrast and with a slight anticipation of the second beat. Even in its modern ballroom form arranged to the steps of the modern waltz, it requires a whirling 60-65 bars a minute. The Circular, Viennese and Modern waltzes are not danced to any particular sequence so any tunes regardless of the number of bars can be used for these dances.
The Polka Mazurka is danced to Mazurka music. Although this dance can be managed to ordinary waltzes and could be performed to this music for the short sequences at the end of the waltzing in the ballroom Alberts, proper Mazurka tunes are far superior. The Mazurka has extra bounce in comparison to the Waltz and two dotted quavers and two crotchets in each bar create this. Oh My Darling Clementine is a typical Mazurka tune. The Varsoviana requires special tunes matching the waltz around and stop steps in the first 16 bar section and mazurka music with stops in the second section. Likewise the Waltz Mazurka requires specially phrased tunes for a 16 bar Circular Waltz in the first section and a Varsoviana Mazurka hybrid in the second 16 bars. The tempo for this group is the same as the sequence dance waltzes, 52-54 bars a minute. The exception is for some regional versions in parts of NSW and Qld where there are glides instead of mazurka hops and the slower tempo is that of the Circular Waltz, 48-50 bars a m inute.
Waltz music in the sets such as Waltz Cotillion and figures 4 and 5 of the Alberts is the same as general sequence dances, 52-54 bars a minute. Some bands will slow down to 48-50 bars a minute at the conclusion for the waltz the hall.
2 Schottische time or 4-4 time might be harder to recognise but the tunes are steady with a 1,2,3,4 count, no oom pah pah as in the waltz and easily distinguishable from the livelier 6-8 and 2-4 music. The general tempo is between 28 to 32 bars a minute but there is a greater marked difference between 2 bars a minute in this time signature. Tunes such as All By Yourself In The Moonlight, Lavender Blue and Click Go The Shears are typically in 4-4 time. The Schottische and the Barn Dance are exactly the same thing musically and dance wise. The Barn Dance simply evolved as a variation of the Schottische, so the steps were the same. In the original forms there were step hop turns rather than the smoother waltz type turn. The normal Schottische and Barn Dance have simple sequences to 4 bars, the progressive Barn Dance to 8 bars. Most of the Schottische Sequence Dances are danced to Schottische tunes, perhaps with a smoother slow Foxtrot style. These include the Charmaine, Yyonne, Joyette, Venetian, Carousel, Excelsior & Merrilyn Schottisches and require 16 bar tunes. The music for one is suitable for the other. The Barn Dance is best at 30 bars a minute, some might prefer a slightly steadier tempo of 29 bars a minute for dances like the Four Sisters' Barn Dance, Uncle Ev's Barn Dance, Charmaine, Maxina and Tangoette. The Maxina is arranged to 24 bar sequences and therefore requires special 24 bar tunes. Ordinary tunes can often be adapted to 24 bars by repeating the first section. Although originally based on the Latin style of the modern ballroom dance Maxixe, the steps and music for the Maxina are Schottische in character.
The Tangoette can be grouped with the Schottische although of course it requires the Habanera or Beguine special rhythm and at a tempo of 29 to 30 bars a minute. The Royal Empress Tango, Tango Rock, La Bomba and other sequence tangos are danced to the same music whereas the true Tango cannot be. It requires similar tunes but in 2-4.
Some of the 4-4 Sequence Dances have a connection with the slow Foxtrot or Blues by name, but are danced to the same music as the Schottische. Examples being the Melba Blues, Barclay Blues and the Balmoral Blues.
The Highland Schottische is simply a Scottish style of the Schottische and usually danced to a slightly smarter tempo of 31 to 32 bars a minute and to Scottish style Schottisches with some reversed dotted quavers which give the 'Scottish snap'. The Keel Row is an example.
The 12 bar sequenced Prince of Wales Schottische in one version requires the first four bars to be played jig style, the balance of the 12 bar sequence is to normal Schottische time. The Qld Berlin Schottische has dramatic stamp emphasis in the opening section then actually changes into waltz time.
The Northumbrian Barn Dance is performed to Hornpipes such as Boys of Bluehill or Off To Calfornia played at a Schottische tempo of 30 bars a minute.
3 Two Step or 6-8 and 2-4 group (& polkas) there are only 2 beats to the bar in this type of music and the dances can be performed to either time signature although there are some preferences. 6-8 time has a dum de dum de rhythm whilst the 2-4 tunes have a regular oom pah beat. Mademoiselle From Armentiers and I've Got A Lovely Bunch of Cocoanuts are typical 6-8 tunes. Cut common time marches like Invercargill and Colonel Bogey and single reels like Rakes of Mallow are typical of the 2-4 style.
The tempo has the widest range for these dances from 56 to 62 bars a minute. For professional ballroom dancing the tempo will usually be at the lowest end of 56 whilst country dance bands might play at the brisk top end of range. 58 bars a minute is the safe compromise that should suit all. Likewise this tempo (58 bpm) is best in the swinging figures of the sets, Alberts, Lancers and First Set.
Again the music for the sequence dances is generally interchangeable and most only require a 16 bar tune. Music for the Two Step, Evening 3 Step, Boston 2 Step, Canadian 3 Step, Military 2 Step, Gay Gordons, Log Cabin and Gypsy Tap can also be used for the Progressive Gordons, Sparkle Two Step and so on.
Marches are preferred for the Military Two Step and Scottish tunes for the Gay Gordons. The Evening 3 Step and Canadian 3 Step are generally danced to 6-8 favourites such as Hello! Who's Your Lady Friend? and McNamara's Band. The Gypsy Tap's original tune is in cut common time, comparable to 2-4, and many of the older bands on recordings have stuck to similar tunes such as Colonel Bogey, Invercargill and Heyken's Serenade. Many present day bands seemed to have switched across to 6-8 time and I've Got A Lovely Bunch of Cocoanuts really suits the Gypsy Tap, particularly in the chorus which emphasises the slide, or where country dancers used to slide. The Scottish jig 'Cock of the North' (Aunty Mary) also makes an excellent Gypsy Tap with plenty of zip. With all of these dances an interchange between 6-8 and 2-4 creates interest or variation.
The Polka is in 2-4 time but has a three quaver beat or emphasis, best marked in the bass rhythm as well as the melody, de 'dum dum dum'. Its tempo is steady from 48 to 54 bars a minute. All polkas require this special rhythm although some have variations in certain phrases to match the footwork. The Princess or Heel and Toe Polka has a two crotchet emphasis on the 1st and 4th bar of the part A section of the tune to mark the heel and toe step. Part B of the tune is regular 3 hop polka style in which the forward polka is danced. The Nariel version of Berlin Polka has an almost full minum hold on the 2nd and 4th bar to correspond with the rest or hold in the step, whilst the Kreuz and other Berlin Polkas have a two crotchet beat on the 2nd and 4th bar.
The other version of Heel and Toe Polka (Brown Jug) has an emphasised dum dum dum in part B to match the hand claps and the original Little Brown Jug song's part B (Ha Ha Haa) suits the hand claps much better than the popular version in the folk scene. The popular version has replaced that section of the tune with what was sometimes played as a third part. The tune with the 3 parts admirably fits Joan Martin's version of Sly Grog Polka where the Brown Jug dance concludes with a 3 hop polka.
The Armatree version of the plain Brown Jug Polka is unusual in that Little Brown Jug is played in 6-8 time so the hand clap emphasis if reversed to Clap, Clap-Clap (dumm de dum) instead of Clap-Clap Clap (Ha Ha Haa). Although polka steps are normally only used in the arming section in the conclusion of the Brown Jug Polka, no polka steps can be used in the 6-8 version.
So called 'Irish Polkas' have little relationship with the polka dance anymore and are played very fast (up to 80 bars a minute) with a regular rhythm and a downbeat on the first bar. The Kerry Polka sets for which they are used no longer retain or need the uplift created by the anacrusis of the Polka. In contrast this is essential for the original ballroom and Australian polka dances such as the 3 Hop Polka.
Estimating tempo. For reference counting bars or beats following the second hand of a watch does this. Count from 0, 1,2,3 or if this seems abnormal count from 1 and deduct 1 at the end. Tap your hand to the beat of the music and commence counting as the second hand is at a main number on the watch and continue counting until it has completed the round to that exact point. Following the downbeat in waltz time will amount to the number of bars per minute. In 6-8 or 2-4 the count is to every second tap; otherwise halve the final amount to each tap.
With 4-4 there are actually four taps to the bar. If counting every second tap as in 2-4 above, halve the result. It is not as hard as it seems, the tempo for 4-4 should be around 30 bars a minute, so if around 60 is your result, halve it. If 120, quarter it.
Quick estimates counting to only a quarter or half a minute can be inaccurate as sometimes 1 to 2 bars variance mightn't be observed and can be the difference between a good tempo and one that is marginally slow or fast.
The instructions for the quadrilles in this (refer to the Quadrille Mania companion booklets) are to serve simply as a call cue for MC's, Callers, lead dancers and for assistance to musicians in arranging suitable brackets of tunes phrased to coincide with the figurework. The usual calls have been highlighted in bold print for quick reference and generally further instruction has only been expanded in the case of the more sophisticated and rarely known quadrilles. Sometimes the instructions include original French terms such as double l"t' or chass' crois'. It should be realised however the average Australian MC or caller will announce that as double etty or chassy crossy respectively.
It is not a descriptive work of the dance sequences as this will be provided on the companion video to the CD, which is expected to be launched in 2001 to coincide with the centenary of Federation. Lucy Stockdale and Shirley Andrews have already filmed many of these and references have been provided on how to obtain them.
Bars and Tempo
The figurework is expressed in terms of bars, usually in multiples of 8, which in 2-4 or 6-8 would equate to 16 steps. Where relating this to music, it should be noted that for 2-4 and 6-8 time there are two beats (foot taps) to a bar, whereas in waltz time the downbeat or each oom pah pah is one bar. 4-4 or Barn Dance time is seldom used in the sets but will occur in the Gavotte section for the Hussars, the Old Bush Barn Quadrille and the opening Schottische figure of the Brisbane Quadrilles. In this case there are four beats to the bar and suitable tempo about 28-30 bars a minute (equivalent to 56-60 bars a minute in 2-4).
Sometimes musicians may convert a 4-4 tune such as a Barn Dance into set time (2-4) by 'swinging it'. Music in converted from common time can be a trap in terms of bars, there being twice as many as expected relative to 2-4 time. In other words one bar of a Barn Dance tune in 4-4 will equal 2 bars of the same section played in 2-4.
The number of bars, or the tempo in these cases can be assessed by counting the beats or foot taps to one minute, and then comparing with standard settings and doubling or halving the count as the case may be.
Normal tempo for 2-4 or 6-8 ranges from 56 to 60 bars a minute (58 is usually optimum) and in waltz time 52 to 54 bars a minute. In the case of waltz the hall some bands gradually slow the tempo over the range of about 4 bars to that of the Circular Waltz; 48 to 50 bars a minute. For specific polka figures and sets such as the Polka Quadrille and Polka Cotillion tunes in 2-4 polka time with the 3-quaver beat must be played much slower than regular 2-4 and should be between 48 and 54 bars a minute. If however a polka tune is used for general figurework (where polka steps are not in use) such as the grand chain in the Lancers then the tune can have the regular beat and normal 2-4 tempo of about 58 bars a minute. Likewise a 2-4 galop as a couples dance might be 80 bars a minute but in a set such as the Galop Quadrille should not exceed 62.
Music arrangements for the quadrilles
Basic tune structure
A traditional set tune such as a jig (6-8) Cock o the North (Auntie Mary) or a single reel (2-4) Rakes of Mallow, has a first and second section of 8 bars each. These 8 bar units of the tune can be referred to as part A and part B. Thus for once through a 32 bar figure a set tune would normally be played repeating the first strain and likewise the second strain. In simple terms this can be expressed as A-A-B-B which equals 32 bars. A 40 bar figure could be matched by either playing A-A-A-B-B or A-A-B-B-B and the choice can usually be determined by where it suits the change in the figurework. It is not as hard as it sounds as often the 40 bar figures are a result of an extra swing at the end each time and therefore the A-A-B-B-B phrasing might be better suited.
Quite often musicians will come up with a better 40 bar arrangement by adding an 8 bar 'tag' from some other simple tune at the end and this can be expressed as A-A-B-B-C.
In the case of 24 bar figures which occur occasionally an arrangement such as A-A-B or A-B-C may be used; sometimes songs such as Oh Susanna or Camptown Races (following the words) will already be in the A-A-B formation.
Figures of 48 bars have often expanded from the older Colonial 32 bar figures as the figurework developed by the folk process during the 20th century. Music to match these can be arranged perhaps with two tunes combined; i.e. A-A-B-B of one and A1-B1 of the other. Again which comes first or last can be best determined by major changes within the figure. As many dance figures conclude with a promenade of 8 bars and a swing of 8 bars the A1-B1 as a 16 bar tag is generally best. The arrangement can then be expressed as A-A-B-B-A1-B1 or A-A-B-B-C-D. There are other figures such as with visiting and starring in the opening of the 4th figure of the Lancers where the 16 bar tag is better at the beginning. In some cases popular tunes such as Along the Road To Gundagai and It's A Long Long Way To Tipperary have a 16 bar verse so if played verse/chorus will equal 48 bars and suit the figurework phrasing particularly well.
In shorter figures such as the 3rd figure of the Lancers the circling of the basket section to only 16 bars and the subsequent starring (promenade) to 16 bars is best highlighted with two appropriate single jigs in sequence and A-B format rather than the traditional 32 bar multiple.
Waltz figures can be tricky as the tunes are more commonly in a 16 bar A section and B section respectively. This of course is absolutely fine for regular 32 bar figures, but much harder for 24, 40 or 48 bar figures. The best way for an odd figure of different length is to find two or three simpler tunes of 16 bars rather than 32 and add a suitable 8 bar tag. Again the positioning of the tag is important. Quite often waltz figures end with an 8 or 16 bar waltz to places; so this is the best place to put the tag. Thus with a 40 bar figure which concludes each time with an 8 bar waltz the set, a regular 32 bar waltz can be played followed by an 8 bar tag. Sometimes waltzes have verses and these can be incorporated to align with changes within figurework.
Emphasising repeats of figures or main changes within
There are several ways in which this can be done.
A tune change is used so that the figure is danced to one tune by 1st and/or 2nd couples and then followed by a second tune for 3rd and/or 4th couples and repeated if the figure is repeated.
A key change is used instead of a different tune but in a similar fashion to above.
A change of time such as from 6-8 to 2-4 or vice-versa.
An extra beat is played between main sections. This takes a lot of practise and although not common now was once widely used by traditional musicians in the bush.
5 Use a variation each time through the tune/figure.
These comments are only guidelines for dancers and musicians. They are more important where the recording of the tunes is to match an 'official' version of a dance, and therefore critical. This once would have been a prerequisite in the ballroom, but in contrast both the dances and tunes survived and developed in the country owing to the folk process and flexibility of both the caller and lead musician. In reality the band in a very relaxed style might play any tune regardless of phrasing and the MC would call with an extension of time. The caller ad lib's to the overall crowd and simply claps his hands to indicate when the band should stop playing. This could be at any time to suit his whim or need and the musicians were usually able to nicely convert into a two bar ending of the tune at any time.
Should further references be required these can be sought from Take Your Partners by Shirley Andrews and 200 Dancing Years co-authored by Shirley Andrews and Peter Ellis. Also Shirley Andrews and Lucy Stockdale have produced a series of videos on the Quadrilles. Enquiries to Lucy Stockdale of 33 Centennial Av Brunswick West 3055, Melbourne. Enquiries about the Quadrille Mania CDs or the companion dance calls can be directed to the Bush Dance & Music Club of Bendigo & District Inc PO Box 922 Bendigo 3552
Music used for the quadrilles
A The Reel is seldom used by Australian bands although the city dance bands of the 1930s sometimes played a section in reel time to highlight the change in figurework. Eg the Grand chain in the Lancers or in visiting. The Reel is more predominant in Scottish and Irish dances. The reel is in 4-4 time and can have 8 quavers in the bar whereas a single reel in 2-4 has only 4. If playing with two beats to the bar then there will be the equivalent of 4 quavers to the beat, or if using 4 beats to the bar then there will be 2 quavers per beat. Typical tunes include Fairy Reel (or Fairy Dance), Miss McLeod's Reel, Wind That Shakes The Barley, Timour the Tartar, Devil Among The Tailors, Drowsy Maggie and Sally Gardens.
B The Single Reel is widely used in Australian dance music. It is generally in 2-4 time with a regular 'oom pah' beat & two sets of paired quavers to the bar. There are two beats to the bar. Tune examples include the Scottish 'Marie's Wedding' and the Irish 'Rakes of Mallow' and any number of popular tunes, even foxtrots and barn dances converted in 2-4 or cut common time by 'swinging the tune' are used as single reels. 2-4 Marches such as Invercargill and Under The Double Eagle were also played for the quadrilles particularly the Lancers. Tempo is normally around 56- 60 bars a minute, 58 the optimum. Other tune examples include The Barren Rocks Of Aden, MacGregor's March, The Girl I Left Behind Me, Finnigan's Wake, Soldier's Joy, My Love She's But A Lassie Yet. There are many excellent collected Australian set tunes in single reel style.
C The Galop is basically of the same format as the single reel but played very fast at well over 60 bars a minute as a couple's dance. Characteristic tunes include William Tell, Ta Ra Ra Boom De Ay and the Can Can but any single reel will suffice. For set dances the tempo is no faster than 60 bars a minute unless for a very special galop figure. Even then it would be wise not to exceed 62 bars a minute.
D The Polka is characterised by its intrinsic three-quaver beat and rest in the rhythm as well as the melody. The uplift to accentuate the spring and 'hop' is enhanced by an anacrusis ahead of the bar in the melody line and a rest in place of the fourth quaver, or occupied by the anacrusis. Polkas are steady; slower than a single reel and from 48 to 54 bars a minute. If a polka tune is used for general figurework rather than for a specific polka figure such as the Polka Quadrille or Polka Cotillion, then the tempo and rhythm can be the same as a single reel or galop as might be used in the Lancers. Little Brown Jug, See Me Dance The Polka, So Early In The Morning, My Mother Said and Polly Wolly Doodle are typical polkas.
So called Irish Polkas have lost the intrinsic 3 quaver beat by being played very fast (often 70-80 bars a minute) and have a 'down movement' created by a held note on the first beat and no anacrusis. Whilst suitable for Irish Kerry Sets from which they have developed (and not requiring the 3 quaver beat), they are no good at all for typical Australian and Ballroom Quadrilles. An example of an Irish polka that is in correct time is 'Tell Me Ma' whilst those such as Denis Murphy, Sweeney's, 42 Pound Float, Bog Down In The Valley, Pat Horgan's are not.
E The Jig used in quadrilles is in 6-8 time with two beats to the bar. The simple single form predominates although an occasional double jig such as the Irish Washerwoman or Cock o' the North are well enough known by traditional musicians of the bush to have been used in the stockyards or figures of the Royal Irish and First Set. The single jig has a general crotchet/quaver occupancy in most bars giving the characteristic 'dum de dum de' rhythm whilst with the double jig there is usually the run of three quavers to each beat, in other words the full quota of six quavers to the bar. Popular tunes such as Mademoiselle From Armentiers and McNamara's Band are played in single jig format. Some dance musicians are skilled enough to play even 4-4 barn dance tunes converting them into jig time. 6-8 Marches such Our Director and Repasz were also popular. Tempo for jigs are normally between 56 to 60 bars a minute, 58 generally the optimum. Sometimes they may be speeded up, particularly a double jig for special dances such as the Royal Irish, but even then the tempo should not exceed 62 bars a minute. Typical single jigs include We Won't Come Home Till Morning from which Jolly Good Fellow is based, Off She Goes (Humpty Dumpty), A Life On The Ocean Wave, The Muckin' of Geordie's Byre, and many of the Australian very good collected set tunes in 6-8. Examples are those of Bert Jamieson, Harry McQueen and Bill McGlashan etc.
Double jigs were rarer but some knew the Humours of Donnybrook, Rollicking Irishman, Irish Lilt, & Connaughtman's Rambles in addition to the very well known Irish Washerwoman and Cock of the North.
F The Waltz in 3-4 differs from its 3-8 ancestral L'ndler in its characteristic oom pah pah vamp. This is created for example on piano or accordion by having the downbeat sounded on a lower octave bass note followed by two upper octave chords. In waltz figures of the quadrilles the tempo is normally at 52 bars a minute although it can be played up to 54 bars a minute. The old Circular Waltz as a couples dance is slower and steady at 48-50 bars a minute. For this reason many of the old time dance bands in a final figure would slow the tempo from 52 down to 50 or even 48 bars a minute over a four bar range as the dancers commence to unwind their sets to waltz the hall. Typical Circular Waltz tunes with the steady and even waltz vamp include The Merry Widow, Daisy Bell, Now Is The Hour and Till We Meet Again. Other waltz tunes used in the sets, particularly for waltz chains, often have a mazurka swing to them and examples include the Spanish Waltz itself, Shamus O'Brien, Missouri Waltz, Kitty of Coleraine and On Mocking Bird Hill. Viennese Waltzes are very fast at a tempo of at least 60 bars a minute and with a slight anticipation of the second waltz beat. If used in the sets (Harry McQueen played Strauss waltzes) they are converted more to Circular style and even tempo. There are many excellent collected Australian tunes that were used in the sets. Mudgee Waltz, My Polly, The Spanish Waltz, Belle Mahone, Orotaba Waltz to name a few.
G Polka Mazurka Takes its name from the combination of mazurka advances and polka step turns, but has nothing to do with the 2-4 polka musically, except perhaps for an anacrusis which can help in the mazurka bounce. Musically the Polka Mazurka is a Mazurka in 3-4 time with similar tempo and bass vamp to the waltz. The fundamental difference between the waltz and a mazurka is that extra brightness and bounce created by a two quaver (dotted) and two crotchet combination to each bar. Oh My Darling Clementine is a typical Polka Mazurka. Authorities vary as to whether the emphasis (unlike the waltz) is on the 2nd or 3rd beat. Some Mazurkas have an anacrusis as in Clementine and others start on a marked downbeat as in Moonwinks or Little Pussy. In some parts of Australia such as certain regions in NSW and Qld the Mazurka is quite a bit slower than the Polka Mazurka and having waltz turns instead of polka turns. However in the sets the Mazurka or Polka Mazurka is normally only encountered in Ballroom versions of the Alberts and collected versions from around Castlemaine. In these situations the Mazurka music is specially added at the end of the appropriate waltz sequence and is therefore at the same tempo of 52-54 bars a minute. In the collected versions special music wasn't so much added as selecting waltzes with a mazurka swing, the Spanish Waltz, On Mocking Bird Hill, Sweet Violets and Shamus O'Brien being typical examples. Clementine is probably the most universally known Polka Mazurka in Australia, but there are many excellent collected tunes such as Daisy's, Sally Sloan's & Bill McGlashan's.
H Barn Dance, Schottische and Gavotte these are generally in 4-4 with a steady tempo from about 28 -30 bars a minute and 4 beats to a bar. The Barn Dance and Schottische (essentially the same) are seldom used in the sets unless the tunes have been 'swung' into cut common or 2-4 time. However on this CD there are two sections where in fact Barn Dance time has been used. All By Yourself In The Moonlight is one of the best examples of Barn Dance tunes, which emphasises the 'kick' following the 3rd step. The Schottische is simply the original form of Barn Dance and perhaps has a 6-8 flavour imparted to it because of dotted notes and triplets in the melody line. The Highland Schottische is again similar, perhaps at a slighter brighter tempo and with Scottish tunes and style enhanced by the 'Scottish snap' (reversed dotted quavers). There are many excellent collected Australian tunes for the Barn Dance and Schottische, but they were seldom used in the sets, the 1st figure of the Brisbane Quadrilles and the Old Bush Barn Quadrille being unusual figures in Schottische time.
However popular Barn Dance tunes and Foxtrots of the same time signature were frequently adapted to Quadrille music by converting them to cut common time or 2-4 by 'swinging' them. Grandfather's Clock, Roll 'em Girls, When The Saints Go Marching In, When You And I Were Young Maggie, Waltzing Matilda are examples.
Gavottes are a rarity for quadrilles and have only been included here because of their use in the Hussars Quadrille of the 1890s. Similar to the Barn Dance with perhaps a more regular 4-crotchet sequence to the bar, nearly all the notes are played staccato which gives the Gavotte characterisation. The tempo is steady and perhaps a little slower than the Barn Dance or Schottische. These Gavottes are 1890s to early twentieth century style and different to the true gavottes of a century or so earlier. There are no collected examples of Gavotte tunes surviving in the living tradition and it is unlikely they would have been used. The Hussars would not have been very prominent outside the Dance Master's Assembly, and even there probably only on odd occasions.